This study explores the contribution of social, economic and political determinants, health system and policy determinants, and health programmes and interventions to this success. For each year, we also obtained data describing the status of 8 social, 10 economic, 2 political, 9 health system and policy, and six health programmes and intervention indicators for each province. These government data are not of the same quality as some other health information sources in modern China, such as articles with primary research data available in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure CNKI and Wan Fang databases, or Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance system. Still, the comparison of relative changes in underlying indicators with the undisputed strong general trend of childhood mortality reduction over 17 years should still capture the main effects at the macro-level.
A variety of factors affecting infant mortality are customarily classified as biological and socio-economic or environmental factors, though these two categories should not be treated as watertight compartments, for there is a great deal of interaction between the two.
At times, it is even possible to modify biological factors by introducing changes in socio-economic factors.
For the sake of convenience, however, these two types of factors will be discussed separately. As has been pointed out earlier, the recent spectacular decline in general mortality has affected all age groups to some extent, but the magnitude of the decline has varied at different ages.
The reduction in mortality was considerably greater in the younger age groups than in the older age groups. In general it may be said that the low level of infant mortality appears to be associated with the low level of general mortality.
The level of mortality is very high in the first few hours, days and weeks of life. The reasons for infant deaths at the earlier and later stages of infancy differ to a certain extent.
Hence, in a study of infant mortality, infant deaths are carefully grouped into two categories according to the age at death. The first category consists of those infants who die before they complete four weeks of life.
The other category consists of those infants who die between 28 days and days of their life. The rate based on the first period is known as the neo-natal mortality rate, while that on the second period is referred to as the post-neo-natal mortality rate.
Factors which affect foetal and neo-natal deaths are primarily endogenous, while those which affect post-neo-natal deaths are primarily exogenous.
Endogenous Factors The endogenous factors are related to the formation of the foetus in the womb and are, therefore, mainly biological in nature. Among the biological factors affecting foetal and neo-natal infant mortality rates, the important ones are the age of the mother, the birth order, the period of spacing between births, prematurely, weight at birth and the fact of multiple births.
Of all the factors listed above, the following have been studied in great depth: It has been generally observed that foetal and neo-natal mortality rates are higher at the younger ages of the mother that is, below the age of 19at first parity and for the first birth order.
These mortality rates start declining up to the age of 29 of the mother and at the second and third parity and then again increase with higher age of the mother, higher parities, and high birth orders. Thus, if a graph of foetal and neo-natal mortality rates is drawn with respect to these factors, it would more or less resemble a U-shaped curve.
The maturity of an infant at birth has also been found to be an important factor affecting neo-natal and infant mortality rates. It has been observed that the weight of the baby at birth is also an important factor affecting neo-natal and post-neo-natal deaths.
In the United States, it was observed that a low birth weight was the cause of two-thirds of all the neo-natal deaths in It was also found that the chances of survival increased considerably with even a moderate increase in the birth weight the optimum birth weight ensuring survival being 3, gms.
It may be noted here that the still-birth rate and the neo-natal mortality rate are both very high in the case of multiple births.
It may be concluded from this discussion that the causes of foetal and neo-natal deaths so far considered arise mainly out of genetic factors, and may be traced back to the intrauterine life of the foetus and to the damage occurring during the process of birth.
Exogenous Causes Social, cultural, economic and environmental factors are also found to affect infant mortality, especially during the post-neo-natal period. Post-neo-natal deaths are therefore mainly due to various epidemics caused by communicable diseases, both of the digestive systems, such as diarrhea and enteritis, and of the respiratory system, such as bronchitis and pneumonia, as well as by faulty feeding patterns and poor hygiene.Many environmental and social factors, such as poor nutrition and poor access to health care, have been found to be associated with low socioeconomic background, e.g.
low income and education, and thus with poor health and development of children [21 – 23].
Infant mortality is one of the essential indicators of social development including child health, mother's health and mother's education. In fact infant mortality rate depends on different factors like environment, socioeconomic conditions, geographic location and certain demographics.
Social Determinants of Health: How Social and Economic Factors Affect Health 3 While the previous scenario is fictional, unfortunately it is all too plausible.
|Upload and Share Your Article:||Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care—United States:|
|Mortality: Factors Affecting and Causes of Decline||Factors Affecting and Causes of Decline Article shared by: After reading this article you will learn about factors affecting and causes of decline of mortality rates.|
|NPR Choice page||They directly influence social privilege and levels of financial independence.|
The U.S., despite spending far more on medical care than any other country in the world, has poorer health outcomes than most other de .
Economic Factors Affecting Health Care. Social and economic factors can influence and impact on an individual’s state of health vastly. Each aspect effects an individual in various different ways producing negative and positive outcomes, more commonly referred to as .
Numerous studies have documented the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. 19 Despite advances in quality and access to health care services, it is noteworthy that the discrepancy in health status between social classes has persisted over time, even though the specific diseases that produce morbidity and mortality have changed.
Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of timberdesignmag.com death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per live timberdesignmag.com under-five mortality rate is also an important statistic, considering the infant mortality rate focuses only on children .