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The goal of this Society is to bring together all the French-speaking doctors qualified to practice the Freudian therapeutic method and to give doctors who wish to become psychoanalysts the opportunity to undergo the training analysis that is indispensable to the practice of Freud's method.
The first permanent member to be elected was Dr. Henri Codet, on December 20, ; Anne Berman, at the time Marie Bonaparte's secretary, became the first regular member on January 10, A week later, the Second Congress of French-speaking Psychoanalysts discussed Charles Nodier's report, "Obsessional Neurosis," the first official manifestation of the SPP and the first in the long series of these Conferences later called Congresses that continue even today to bring together Europe 's French-speaking psychoanalysts and to put on their agenda various theoretical and clinical aspects of Freudian psychoanalysis: Inhowever, there was a crisis, because, as Laforgue wrote to Freud on October On January 10,the first Institut de psychanalyse de Paris was inaugurated.
Marie Bonaparte, who had made its creation possible, was named director. Beginning in the issue arose of what welcome should be extended to analysts fleeing the threat of Nazism, first from Germany and then from other Central European countries. The beginning of the war in did not stop courses at the Institut de psychanalyse, but the German occupation brought all psychoanalytic activity to a halt.
The society's activities gradually resumed after under the presidency of John Leuba. In the wake of Sacha Nacht, wreathed in the laurels of his resistance activities, there appeared newcomers such as Serge Lebovici, the first among those who would soon form the core of his team.
This theme presaged the conflicts that would crystallize around the issue of the training of new candidates, Rencontres occitanes braux Freud had again become fashionable in France, and the prisonlike structures of psychiatric institutions were being called into question by young psychiatrists.
The SPP, which no longer knew where to hold meetings, had no library and no means of accepting students there were seventy of them inand needed to establish premises for its operations.
Sacha Nacht was elected president in and took in hand the future of the institute of psychoanalysis that everyone was determined to create. Meanwhile, legal proceedings filed in against a non-physician colleague, Mrs. Clark-Williams, for the "illegal practice of medicine," had established that a psychoanalytic society had a the collective responsibility to civil society.
There were thus ample arguments to support Nacht's imposition of strict, medically-oriented standards for training, applying the criteria of co-option defined by the IPA with regard to the number, frequency, and duration of sessions in the "training analysis" or the "supervised treatments" required of candidates.
For Rencontres occitanes braux thirty years, issues related to training took center stage in French psychoanalysis; at the same time, they stimulated unprecedented emulation in the theoretical, clinical, and institutional creativity of members of an SPP that was spurred on by rivalry with the SFP and later, increasingly, by the renown of Jacques Lacan and the growingnumber of his students.
The June inauguration of the Institut de psychanalyse, headed by Nacht untilcreated a split that was not transcended until Although the SPP, in the eyes of the IPA, remained the sole representative of psychoanalysis in France untilit was then reduced to the rank of a mere scientific society, without decision-making powers with regard to training policies or the dissemination of Freud's theories.
They formed the core of the "Commission on Teaching," whose members were co-opted from among the permanent membership, and where choices and decisions were made regarding candidates for various posts.
While dual membership in both societies may have been mandatory, the importance given to the criteria for training and selection was such that soon the public no longer spoke of the "Society," but instead referred to the group as "the Institute.
His students and partisans were quickly elected to permanent membership to replace those who had left as a result of the split: Above all, Nacht created a mindset and a way of conceiving of psychoanalysis that are evident in the works published during his tenure, such as La Psychanalyse d 'aujourd 'hui Psychoanalysis Today, His work was a central reference in almost all the scientific papers presented in meetings of the SPP, and he was the preferred target for attacks by his former friend Lacan and his followers, although Maurice Bouvet, before his death inwas another such victim, particularly with regard to his work on object relations.
In a minor revolution displaced Sacha Nacht from the leadership of the institute in favor of Serge Lebovici, assisted by Michel Fain, with Francis Pasche responsible for the presidency of the society. The autocracy of Nacht and his restricted Commission on Teaching gave way to an oligarchy, that of the "permanent members" there were thirty of them in By way of elections held within the society, this group for a number of years maintained their control over what was always the living part of the society, the institute and its Commission on Teaching, on which they all secured ongoing membership in This was also the terrain of after-conflicts, since over time the play of politics led to the election of about one-third dissenting voices, which, although they never managed to impose the liberal reforms they wished to promote, gradually caused movement in the ponderousness of this large, two-headed institution.
The election to permanent membership of Evelyne Kestembergthe first nonphysician since the times of Marie Bonaparte who had died inprovided proof of the thorough expunging of the policies of Sacha Nacht, who had always opposed this. Others followed, such as Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel and Joyce McDougall inand then Salem Shentoub inproviding the SPP with the openness and diversity that gradually came to characterize it and cause it to lose its monolithic aspect.
The founding in October of the European Federation of Psychoanalysis, in which societies' representation was proportionate to their membership base, led to a broadening of the SPP, the consequences of which were crucial for its development.
This was the creation, in Novemberof the category of "affiliated members," which was to serve as a screening stage between the completion of the curriculum at the institute and election to full membership in the society upon submission of a clinical thesis, which henceforth was the only path of access to membership.
This new category would not be the last thing to agitate the tumultuous meetings of Maywhere institutional constraints were called into question within the Commission on the Degree Program and Hierarchy—although without immediately producing any spectacular modifications.
A January report by Jean-Luc Donnet on behalf of this commission set forth a proposed degree program, the first in a long series, for discussions, counterproposals, meetings, conflicts, and open letters addressing the problems of training which thereafter took center stage in most of the meetings and general assemblies of the SPP and the institute.
A new reform of the statutes promoted by Pierre Marty, who was elected president inthat aimed to create an administrative college was voted in on June 16,on the condition that the problem of the "affiliated members" be set aside.
Indeed, this category considerably changed the numerical ratio of the membership in an association where, by law, each dues-paying member was supposed to have administrative power and the right to vote: The college thus represented a first step toward expanding institutional responsibilities over the three categories of members, even though initially only the regular members were allowed to play a role, for example, on the candidature commissions and the election of their peers.
The area of training analysis in French, analyse didactiquealthough the word "didactic" discreetly disappeared from usage, like the election of permanent members, remained a closed field reserved only for members of the Commission on Teaching.
Only twenty-four years later, on September 27,would the permanent members modify the conditions for admission to the degree course and agree to allow any person who had been in analysis for more than three years with a member of the SPP to ask to be received by the Commission on the Degree Program.
This measure put an end to the struggle that had underlain all the episodes of administrative turbulence that had beset the society and the institute from A new attempt to reform the statutes to integrate the affiliated members into the institute failed in because of a negative vote from the permanent members, among whom a conservative majority continued to prevail.
A gentleman's agreement was nonetheless adopted that provided for a three-year trial of a board of directors made up of the three categories of members, but this was followed by a series of discussions and votes that were aborted because one or several categories did not have a quorum.Fahrenheit by Christian Dior is a Woody Floral Musk fragrance for men after reported earnings this week, investors now seem think there is.
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