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Abstract Background Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder MDD after terrorist attacks.
Methods A systematic review was performed. Results A total of reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support.
The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Conclusions Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed.
Psychological disorders in a terroristic event essay The scientific study of the psychological consequences of disasters has come a long way in the last decade [ 12 ].
Different reviews of the topic have shown that disasters are a relatively common event in western countries [ 3 ] capable of affecting the population in which they occur as a whole [ 4 ]. Of the different types of disasters, terrorism occupies a special place in the literature.
The results of several revisions of the consequences of disasters have shown that terrorism may be associated with a greater risk of psychopathology than other disasters [ 6 ]. This characteristic, along with the increase in terrorist attacks that have struck various cities of the USA and Europe in recent years, have turned terrorism into a problem of interest, both for clinicians and for public health professionals.
A substantial body of research, much of which has been carried out after the September 11, terrorist attacks in New York and the March 11, terrorist attacks in Madrid, has documented the extent to which terrorism can affect the mental health of populations [ 36 ].
Of the specific psychiatric disorders studied, literature has been mainly focused on posttraumatic stress disorder PTSDwith several reviews documenting the course and correlates of this disorder [for a review see [ 13 ]].
However, less is known about major depressive disorder MDD. The study of MDD may facilitate a more complete understanding of the psychopathological burden of trauma, which may help to design more effective population-level mental health interventions in the aftermath of terrorism [ 47 - 9 ].
Terrorist attacks can produce reactions of intense fear and horror and generate a profound sense of loss for the people involved, both of which may underlie the development of MDD [ 1011 ].
Moreover, a positive association between the occurrence of stressful events and the probability of developing a MDD has been consistently documented in the literature [for a review, see [ 1213 ]].
Therefore, it is plausible that MDD prevalence may increase after disasters. This, together with the high prevalence of MDD in the general population [ 1415 ] and the substantial personal, social, and economic consequences of this disorder [ 16 - 18 ], suggests that MDD may be an important focus in the study of the psychological effects of terrorism.
However, with few exceptions [ 8 ], most of the data on MDD after terrorist attacks has been gathered in studies that also present data on other psychological problems typically reporting MDD and PTSD jointly and carried out in the context of a very specific event, at a given time and place, without comparing the results obtained with other prevalence rates.
On the other hand, there is heterogeneity in the methodology used to assess MDD, with several studies using scales that assess the frequency or intensity of certain symptoms associated with MDD and not diagnostic measuresthat may hamper the correct prediction of expected rates of MDD.
All this limits our ability to draw generalizable inferences about MDD after terrorist attacks and suggests that a systematic review may make an important contribution to the field [ 6 ]. We present a review of the empirical research focused on the study of MDD as a consequence of terrorism in two specific populations: Two specific goals were established for the review:Chapter 13 - Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal?
Deciding what is normal and what is abnormal is a value judgment.
Essay on Psychology: Psychological Trauma and Life no facet of my life has been untouched by the mental illnesses that I suffer. PTSD is the major issue that I suffer from, but I also deal with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) which my therapist and I believe comes from the many instances of abuse that I suffered and witnessed as a child. Sep 15, · Disasters, from natural events such as hurricanes or earthquakes, to human-caused incidents such as mass shootings or terrorist attacks, are typically unexpected and overwhelming. Even when you’re not hurt physically, disasters can take an emotional toll. The terrorist is branded as fanatic, mainly due to the actions which lead to self-harm in psychological terms., However, Taylor ()7 does not categorize fanaticism as a diagnostic entity in mental illness.
Mental illness judgments are based on cultural values, social trends, political forces, as well as scientific knowledge. experience of a major traumatic event; follows exposure to a life-threatening or other extreme.
Essay about Psychological Disorders in a Terroristic Event - Psychological disorders present in individuals in the wake of a terroristic event will vary based on several things.
For example, young children will have different psychological disorders compared to school-aged children or adolescents. Insanity is usually reserved for describing severe conditions involving psychotic-like breaks with reality, while Mental Illness can include both severe and milder forms of mental problems (such as anxiety disorders and mild depressions).
Jun 10, · Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is the psychiatric disorder that can result from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or life-threatening events such as terrorist attack, violent crime and abuse, military combat, natural disasters, serious accidents or violent personal assaults.
Terrorism Essay; Terrorism Essay. Overview of Terrorism. Words | 4 Pages Terrorism Psychology The assignment being completed within this report asks the author of this paper to answer several questions. The first relates to the psychological attributes of terrorists.
The third and final one asks for mental illness and its. Psychological disorders present in individuals in the wake of a terroristic event will vary based on several things. For example, young children will have different psychological disorders compared to school-aged children or adolescents.
Although the ages are fairly close, the disorders and symptoms that will be present will have great differences.