These two measures resulted in millions of deaths. Though confined to a single state i. Would Earth be released?
Early life[ edit ] Born in Stepney in London's East EndWalter Pater was the second son of Richard Glode Pater, a physician who had moved to London in the early 19th century to practice medicine among the poor.
Dr Pater died while Walter was an infant and the family moved to EnfieldLondon.
Walter attended Enfield Grammar School and was individually tutored by the headmaster. Inhe was sent to The King's School, Canterburywhere the beauty of the cathedral made an impression that would remain with him all his life.
He was fourteen when his mother, Maria Pater, died in As a schoolboy Pater read John Ruskin 's Modern Painterswhich helped inspire his lifelong attraction to the study of art and gave him a taste for well-crafted prose.
He gained a school exhibition, with which he proceeded in to Queen's College, Oxford. FlaubertGautierBaudelaire and Swinburne were among his early favourites. Visiting his aunt and sisters in Germany during the vacations, he learned German and began to read Hegel and the German philosophers.
In Jowett's classes, however, Pater was a disappointment; he took a Second in Literae Humaniores in As a boy Pater had cherished the idea of entering the Anglican clergybut at Oxford his faith in Christianity had been shaken.
In spite of his inclination towards the ritual and aesthetic elements of the church, he had little interest in Christian doctrine and did not pursue ordination. After graduating, Pater remained in Oxford and taught Michelangelo a master of art english literature essay and Philosophy to private students.
His sister Clara Patera pioneer of women's education, taught ancient Greek and Latin at Somerville Collegeof which he was one of the co-founders. His years of study and reading now paid dividends: Career and writings[ edit ] The Renaissance[ edit ] The opportunities for wider study and teaching at Oxford, combined with formative visits to the Continent — in he visited FlorencePisa and Ravenna — meant that Pater's preoccupations now multiplied.
He became acutely interested in art and literature, and started to write articles and criticism. First to be printed was an essay on the metaphysics of Coleridge"Coleridge's Writings" contributed anonymously in to the Westminster Review.
A few months later his essay on Winckelmannan early expression of his intellectual and artistic idealismappeared in the same review, followed by "The Poems of William Morris "expressing his admiration for romanticism.
In the following years the Fortnightly Review printed his essays on Leonardo da VinciSandro Botticelliand Michelangelo The last three, with other similar pieces, were collected in his Studies in the History of the Renaissancerenamed in the second and later editions The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry.
The Leonardo essay contains Pater's celebrated reverie on the Mona Lisa  "probably still the most famous piece of writing about any picture in the world"  ; the Botticelli essay was the first in English on this painter, contributing to the revival of interest in this artist.
The final paragraphs of the William Morris essay were reworked as the book's "Conclusion'. This brief "Conclusion" was to be Pater's most influential — and controversial  — publication. It asserts that our physical lives are made up of scientific processes and elemental forces in perpetual motion, "renewed from moment to moment but parting sooner or later on their ways".
In the mind "the whirlpool is still more rapid": Because all is in flux, to get the most from life, we must learn to discriminate through "sharp and eager observation": Not to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us in the brilliancy of their gifts is, on this short day of frost and sun, to sleep before evening.
Here we should "be for ever testing new opinions, never acquiescing in a facile orthodoxy"; and of these, a passion for the arts, "a desire of beauty", has in the summary of one of Pater's editors  "the greatest potential for staving off the sense of transience, because in the arts the perceptions of highly sensitive minds are already ordered; we are confronted with a reality already refined and we are able to reach the personality behind the work".
The Renaissance, which appeared to some to endorse amorality and "hedonism", provoked criticism from conservative quarters, including disapproval from Pater's former tutor at Queen's College, from the college chaplain at Brasenose College and from the Bishop of Oxford.
In the s, letters emerged documenting a "romance"  with a nineteen-year-old Balliol undergraduate, William Money Hardingewho had attracted unfavorable attention as a result of his outspoken homosexuality and blasphemous verse, and who later became a novelist.
Mallockhad passed the Pater-Hardinge letters to Jowett,  who summoned Pater: Benson in his diary "after the dreadful interview with Jowett. He became old, crushed, despairing — and this dreadful weight lasted for years; it was years before he realised that Jowett would not use them.
The satire appeared during the competition for the Oxford Professorship of Poetry and played a role in convincing Pater to remove himself from consideration. A few months later Pater published what may have been a subtle riposte:The word Realistic means to apply Realism.
Realism in Art and literature has always meant that the artist attempts to represent persons, scenes, things, and facts as they are, life as it is.
Walter Horatio Pater (4 August – 30 July ) was an English essayist, literary and art critic, and fiction writer, regarded as one of the great stylists. His works on Renaissance subjects were popular but controversial, reflecting his lost belief in Christianity.
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Joseph Carroll is my colleague and friend; we have corresponded and read each others’ pre-published work for more than a decade.
I reviewed his first book in a substantial essay in Philosophy and Literature and wrote a response to his target article in the journal Style. Langa's Art Analysis - In Chapter 3 of her book Langa looks at s prints of labor-related images as part of her larger project of offering a more nuanced reading of s prints as active social documents on which the multiple and contradictory forces shaping America at the time found a visual outlet.
Of the silent trilogy, Earth () is Dovzhenko’s most accessible film but, perhaps for these same reasons, most misunderstood.
|Start here||Eliot died, wrote Robert Giroux, "the world became a lesser place. Whether he is liked or disliked is of no importance, but he must be read.|
In a Brussels’ film jury would vote Earth as one of the great films of all time. Earth marks a threshold in Dovzhenko’s career emblematic of a turning point in the Ukrainian cultural and political avant-garde - the end of one period and transition to another.