In Civil Disobedience, Thoreau evaluates the federal government critically, contending that it is an artificial institution created by the powerful while acknowledging that it is believed to serve a purpose and is likely to remain a feature of American life. One of the factors that influenced Thoreau to consider civil disobedience as a method of resistance was the poor treatment of Mexico by the United States.
PAN formulates shared challenge tasks for plagiarism detection,  authorship identification,  author gender identification,  author profiling vandalism detection,  and other related text analysis tasks, many of which hinge on stylometry. Case studies of interest[ edit ] Around to BC, as recorded in the Book of Judgesone tribe identified members of another tribe in order to kill them by asking them to say the word Shibboleth which in the dialect of the intended victims sounded like "sibboleth".
Helander was first convicted of writing the letters and lost his position as bishop but later partially exonerated. The letters were studied using a number of stylometric measures and also typewriter characteristics and the various court cases and further examinations, many contracted by Helander himself during the years up to his death in discussed stylometric methodology and its value as evidence in some detail.
After his personal notes were made public on his 90th birthday ina study to determine which of those talks were written by him and which were written by various aides used stylostatistical methods.
This case was only resolved after a handwriting analysis confirmed the authorship. Instylometric methods were used to compare the Unabomber manifesto with letters written by one of the suspects, Theodor Kaczynski to his brother, which led to his apprehension and later conviction.
Ina group of linguists, computer scientists, and scholars analysed the authoship of Elena Ferrante.
Based on a corpus created at University of Padua containing novels written by 40 authors, they analyzed Ferrante's style based on seven of her novels. They were able to compare her writing style with 39 other novelists using, for example, stylo.
Domenico Starnone is the secret hand behind Elena Ferrante. Most methods are statistical in nature, such as cluster analysis and discriminant analysisare typically based on philological data and features, and are fruitful application domains for modern machine learning approaches.
Whereas in the past, stylometry emphasized the rarest or most striking elements of a text, contemporary techniques can isolate identifying patterns even in common parts of speech.
Most systems are based on lexical statistics, i. In this context, unlike in information retrievalthe observed occurrence patterns of the most common words are more interesting than the topical terms which are less frequent. An example of a writer invariant is frequency of function words used by the writer.
In one such method, the text is analyzed to find the 50 most common words. The text is then broken into 5, word chunks and each of the chunks is analyzed to find the frequency of those 50 words in that chunk. This generates a unique number identifier for each chunk.
These numbers place each chunk of text into a point in a dimensional space.
This dimensional space is flattened into a plane using principal components analysis PCA. This results in a display of points that correspond to an author's style.
If two literary works are placed on the same plane, the resulting pattern may show if both works were by the same author or different authors.
This course was created by Rebecca Epperly Wire. You can contact her through the Facebook community group with questions. You can say thank you to her with a gift. Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem. Credits: 1 Recommended: 10th, 11th, 12th (This is typically the 11th grade course.) Prerequisite: Literature. Further Study. Test your knowledge of Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass with our quizzes and study questions, or go further with essays on the context and background and links to the best resources around the web. Context. Frederick Douglass was born into slavery in Maryland as Frederick Bailey circa Douglass served as a slave on farms on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and in Baltimore throughout his youth.
Neural networks[ edit ] Neural networksa special case of statistical machine learning methods, have been used to analyze authorship of texts. Text of undisputed authorship are used to train the neural network through processes such as backpropagationwhere training error is calculated and used to update the process to increase accuracy.
Through a process akin to non-linear regression, the network gains the ability to generalize its recognition ability to new texts to which it has not yet been exposed, classifying them to a stated degree of confidence.
Such techniques were applied to the long-standing claims of collaboration of Shakespeare with his contemporaries Fletcher and Christopher Marlowe  and confirmed the view, based on more conventional scholarship, that such collaboration had indeed taken place.
This study from Vrije Universiteit examined identification of poems by three Dutch authors using only letter sequences such as "den". This involves a method that starts out with a set of rules.
An example rule might be, "If but appears more than 1. The program is presented with text and uses the rules to determine authorship. The rules are tested against a set of known texts and each rule is given a fitness score.
The 50 rules with the lowest scores are thrown out. The remaining 50 rules are given small changes and 50 new rules are introduced. This is repeated until the evolved rules correctly attribute the texts. Rare pairs[ edit ] One method for identifying style is called "rare pairs", and relies upon individual habits of collocation.
The use of certain words may, for a particular author, idiosyncratically entail the use of other, predictable words.This course was created by Rebecca Epperly Wire. You can contact her through the Facebook community group with questions. You can say thank you to her with a gift.
Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem. Credits: 1 Recommended: 10th, 11th, 12th (This is typically the 11th grade course.) Prerequisite: Literature. Written originally for a special issue of The New Yorker and reissued here with a new forward by the author, Within the Context of No Context is George W.
Trow's brilliant exposition on the state of American culture and twentieth-century life. Stylometry is the application of the study of linguistic style, usually to written language, but it has successfully been applied to music and to fine-art paintings as well..
Stylometry is often used to attribute authorship to anonymous or disputed documents. It has legal as well as academic and literary applications, ranging from the question of the authorship of Shakespeare's works to.
I appear this evening as a thief and a robber. I stole this head, these limbs, this body from my master, and ran off with them. – Frederick Douglass Humour humbles us and takes us out to the dance.
It makes itself useful by functioning as a tool of unconscious analysis that can suspend internal. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.